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Friday, September 21, 2012

ON MUSIC

IT IS GATHERED, LEARNT, THOUGHT OVER,PONDERED AND FELT WORTH FOR THE POSTERITY TO LEARN FROM ONE SPOT. THANK YOU MY FRIEND, ENTHARO MAHANU BAVULU ANTHARIKI VANDNAMU   MAY BE MY GRAND CHILDREN ARE BENEFITTED.

                                                                    ON  MUSIC

Sujani asked: So should not every bit of sound in this universe be called music? Each individual is the best judge to choose his music. Screaming is music in Rock songs, there are definitions/ proper learning methodogies to learn to scream also. why is some music pleasant to our ears and some music not?

                Hindustani Music:              Tansen based his theories of music according to the Shiv Mata and the Hanuman Mata in which the expositions of the characteristics of the six main Ragas namely (1) Bhairav (2) Malkosh (3) Hindol (4) Shree (5) Megh (6) Dipak and their Raginis and the Raga Putras were given. In Sanskrit works like Sangitadarpana correlation of the ragas with Raginis seems to be based on imaginary grounds or fictions. But both Basat Khan and Wazir Khan in their musical manuscripts, have rearranged the relations between Ragas and Raginis which they ascribed to Tansen's theories in a way satisfying both reason and science. These two great musicians accepted the theory of twelve Melas and showed that the six main Ragas belonged to the six main Melas and there was correlation between the Ragas and Raginis according to the similarities of Melas, Vadi, Samvadi and Amsa Swaras.

                  The origin of the Arabic and the Persian music may be traced from Greece. But it should be remembered that the Greeks were indebted to Egypt on the one hand and India on the other for the development of their philosophy, music, science and the various arts Tansen was the son of a Gaudiya Brahniin of Benaras and was initiated by Haridas Svamii in the Brahma Vidya and Nada Vidya and later on was initiated by the Pir of Gwalior in the cult of sufism. Although by his marriage with a Muslim lady he embraced the Islamic religion, he did not forsake the teachings of the Vedic cult ; rather he combined the philosophical principles and the practices of the Vedas and the Bhakti Sastra of India with the Sufi cult of Persia.

                       Music, the ancient Persians believed that this art had originated from the melodious notes of a bird which they called Mausiqar. The beak of the bird has seven holes in it and through each hole it used to sound a different note. . Pythagoras wrote a book entitled Mausike in the Greek language in about 500 B. C. Mou in Greek means air and sike means knot and the word mousike meant "tying a knot in the air". Persians and Arabs call music, "Mousike", Pythagoras was known as a student of Sankhya Philosohpy and many believe that he learnt also the fundamental principles of Indian music.

                   Indian music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world.[14] The Indus Valley civilization left sculptures which show dance[15] and musical instruments (some no longer in use), like the seven holed flute. Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler.[16] The Rigveda has elements of present Indian music, with a musical notation to denote the metre and the mode of chanting.[17] Early Indian musical tradition also speaks of three accents and vocal music known as "Samagan" (Sama meaning melody and Gan meaning to sing).[18] The classical music of India includes two major traditions: the southern Carnatic music and the northern Hindustani classical music. India's classical music tradition is millennia long and remains important to the lives of Indians today as a source of religious inspiration, cultural expression, and entertainment. The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. Samaveda, one of the four vedas describes music at length.

                     Aarav आरव्:Aarav आरव् is a Sanskrit word, rooted in the word rav रव् , which means rustling sound. Aarav आरव् means melodious music or sound  Aarav आरव् is also a popular male first name in India, it means :A person who is well-composed, poised and at peace with himself.

                      All Sanskrit verse has a particular chandas, a metre, so it lends itself easily to music patterns.  You can set the same metre to different talas but you must do so without distorting the meaning or breaking words.  Also one has  to match the melody to the rasa, the mood or emotion;  make the meaning felt through the rasa.  The tempo must also match the rasa – for the karuna (pitiful) rasa we need a slow tempo, a faster one for the vira (heroic) rasa and so on. Pronunciation and the  meaning must not get lost in the melody. 

                     Now a question: Why do we like certain musical genres over others?   May be Emotional connections: what we grew up with, shared tastes with friends (social norms too), all that stuff that brings back a world of memories.Then, there's the actual characteristics of the music: fast or slow, modern or old or REALLY old, intellectual content vs emotional expression.Not to forget short-term moods. I'm in the mood for such-and-such a song. You could broaden this and say that some people's long-term moods affect their music tastes, either way.

                   Another question:  Why do different people enjoy different types of music?
                   There are several reasons, such as rhythm. Some people who like rap, rock, hip hop, techno, etc. might not listen to the words and listen to the beat or the rhythm of the song. Another reason is that it may have a connection with someone's past. If they listened to a certain genre when they were younger, they might like it because it reminds them of their childhood, or someone close to them liked it and they like remembering that person by listening to that genres or those genres. So the principle of individual differences in sensory experience (at the neuronal level) combined with social and cultural learning probably accounts for the vast differences in preferences that we see in food, music, etc.         

                Western and in general:         In music, texture is the way the melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic materials are combined in a composition, thus determining the overall quality of the sound in a piece. Texture is often described in regards to the density, or thickness, and range, or width between lowest and highest pitches, in relative terms as well as more specifically distinguished according to the number of voices, or parts, and the relationship between these voices. For example, a thick texture contains several different "layers" of instruments. One layer could be a string section, another brass. This would be a reasonably light texture, with not too many layers. The thickness also is affected by the amount and the richness of the instruments playing the piece. The thickness varies from light to thick. A piece's texture may be affected by the number and character of parts playing at once, the timbre of the instruments or voices playing these parts and the harmony, tempo, and rhythms used.

The types categorized by number and relationship of parts are analyzed and determined through the labeling of primary textural elements: primary melody (PM), secondary melody (SM), parallel supporting melody (PSM), static support (SS), harmonic support (HS), rhythmic support (RS), and harmonic and rhythmic support (HRS)

                   In musical terms, particularly in the fields of music history and music analysis, some common terms for different types of texture are:
 

1.   Monophonic     sinle melody with no accompaniments  example SAMA VEDAM RECITAL
2.   Biphonic          a composition with the melody and beat or chord. Example “PARUVAME PUDIYA PADAL PADU
3.   Polyphonic orCounterpoint    SIMULTANEOUS EBB AND FLOW MATCHING THE MELODY IN CONJUNCTION OR VARIATION WITH SRUTHI AND RHYTHM. EXAMPLE  “HEY RAM” BY KAMAL AND VASUNDARA DAS OR ANBE SIVAM OR  A R  RAHMAN “Tamizha tamizha’
4.   Homophonic       General homogenous prime melody with relevant accompaniments SO MANY HITS OF ir,msv AND arr
5.   Hetrophonic     Mixture of one high and one low in vocal or accompaniments many are there But to quote ABIRAMIYE……..MANIDAR UNARNDU KOLLA…”
6.   Additive or mixture of all      Example   ROCK, METAL, HIP-HOP ETC HARD MUSIC, KUTHUPATTU ETC

 

           CARNATIC IN COMPARISON WITH OTHERS:

             Sage Bharata defines 'Music' as the confluence or combination of Swara, Tala, & Pada - all in harmonious blend. Sage Matanga defines 'Raga' as a combination of musical notes that gives delight. a melody arrangement to project a definite mood, emotion or feeling.
            Brahma was the origin of music inspired by Sama Veda. From one note, music progressed to three, then five & crystallized in seven notes, the Sapta Swaras. Sapta Swaras are Shadja, Rishaba, Gandhara, Madyama, Panchama, Daivata & Nishada. Swara is a musical note. Swaras are reputed to have been inspired by sounds of birds & animals such as :

Shadja --
Peacock
Rishaba --
Ox
Gandhara --
Goat
Madyama --
Krouncha bird
Panchama --
Cuckoo
Daivata --
Horse
Nishada --
Elephant


Indian music has fundamentally been a spiritual aid & the vehicle for the soul to realise & attain the Universal Soul ( Paramatman). It lay stress on melody, harmony being secondary though vital.

Corresponding Classification/Nomenclature :

Greek
Ecclesiastical
European
Arabic
Indian
Lydic
Ionian
Modern C
Meia Mode
Dheera Sankarabharanam
Pypygian
Dorian
Modern D
Irak Mode
Karaharapriya
Doric
Phrygian
Modern E
Mex Mode
Todi
Hypelysic
Lydian
Modern F
Edzeil Mode
Kalyani
Hypopurigion
Mixolydian
Modern G
D.Jorka Mode
Harikambhoji
Hypodoric
Aeolian
Modern A
Lisa Mode
Natabairavi
(Mixed Doric)
(Locrian)
Modern B
Saika Mode
Nilambari

 

Scale means stepwise arrangement of notes which when successively invoked develop & provide melody. Shadjam is basic or adhara swara which is the basis for the other six notes. Madyama is pitchforked between two traids. Panchama denotes the fifth place. When Sama Veda was recited ( Sama ganam), the spouse accompanied on veena or flute. 

From Pranavam emanates Satyajatam, Vaamanam, Tatpurusham, Eesanam & Aghoram which are the five faces of Lord Siva, from which the musical notes emanated & passed on to Posterity. Siva taught Parvati, the prime Sishya & it was successively passed on to Tumburu, Narada, Nandikeswara & Saraswati. 

Sama Veda is well-known as musically rendered. Rig Veda too is reputed to have been chanted once
musically. Thevaram by Appar, Sundarar & Sambandar and Divya Prabandam by Vaishnavite Azhwars came up during 7-9th centuries.

Seven swaras have twelve swara divisions:

Carnatic System
Syllable
Hindustani System
Western
ShadjaMAM
SA
Shadj
C
Suddha RiSHABAM
R1
Komal Rishab
D Flat Db
Chatusruti RiSHABAM
R2
Thivra Rishab
D
Sadarana GANDHARAM
G1
Komal GA
E Flat Eb
Antara GANDHARAM
G2
Thivra GA
E
Suddha MADYAMAM
M1
Komal MA
F
Prati MADYAMAM
M2
Thivra MA
F Sharp F+
PanchamaDYAMAM
PA
Pancham
G
Suddha DaIVATHAM
D1
Komal Da
A Flat Ab
Chatusruti DaIVATHAM
D2
Thivra Da
A
Kaisiki NISHADHAM
N1
Komal NI
B Flat Bb
KakaliNISHADHAM
N2
Thivra NI
B

Note:   R1,g1,m1,d1,n1  ARE ALSO CALLED “CHINNA” AND “2”AS ARE CALLED “periya”

                    72 Sampoorna Ragas having all seven swaras both in ascending (arohana) & descending (avarohana) emerge as Mela ragas. Each mela has al the seven swaras but drafts varying swarasthana formulations. 

            Each mela raga applied to permutations & combinations of swara sthanas gives scope to 484 janya (sub) ragas. 72 mela ragas have thus a potential to give the colossal 34776 janya ragas. Of course, this is only an arithmetical projection & not a melodic feasibility. Of 72 melas, the first 36 have M1 & the second 36 Have M2. 

*****    Music is associated with melody. Melody with meaningful words (compositions) becomes a masterpiece. 
            This is brought out in a known Sanskrit verse,with a depth meaning;          
"Vaagardha viva sampruktau vagartha pratipattay 
Jagatah pitarau vande parvati parameswaran" 

             says the very first verse of the kavya 'Raghuvamsa' by the poet par excellence Kalidasa. It conveys that a word & its meaning are indivisible and it is like the Divine unity of Parvathi & Parameswaran. Such is the importance of meaning to a word. And in India, where music is perceived as a means to salvation, we find many compositions which excel in meaning, melody & technical efficiency. We owe much to the composers, who, through their structured melodic patterns, poetic phrases & technical brilliance have enriched Carnatic music.

 

  

                        

                

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